Fire Behavior and Tactical Considerations UL/NIST

Some of you may have already seen this video talking about UL/NIST’s research into modern fires and ventilation. There are several out there regarding this particular subject so perhaps this is one you haven’t seen yet. We watched this for drill the other day at my job and while the information wasn’t particularly new to me some of the other guys were having it explained to them for the first time. The presentation is done a bit better than most of these types of research videos and there are plenty of pictures and videos to keep it going. I’ve it a watch and learn what all the talk has been about the last several months.

In the Wake of Tragedy

Image     In the beginning stages of a news-worthy story there are generally a few things that happen that have become common place in our society today. First, there is a storm of information that crashes onto the internet. These early reports are usually from scanner listeners and people near the scene of whatever is going on. The reports are usually short and to the point, perhaps not yet grasping the severity of the situation or being extremely limited in facts. “Boston Fire working a fire in a brownstone.” “Reports of victims trapped.” Or, “Huge fire by my office!” are blasted out across Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and other social media outlets. This usually sparks some interest from those of us in the fire service community and we may begin to take notice on a professional curiosity level. Many lay people just go on about their business, perhaps seeing a cubicle-dweller’s picture out of his office window and giving it casual look, thinking “Oh, thats pretty cool.” Second, as the incident may escalate, the local media is drawn to the scene. Often their first information is also drawn from scanner feeds or social media outlets. This piques some reporters interest and he or she may grab a mic, a camera man and a van and head down to the scene. This may turn into something and their station/paper/magazine needs to be the first to break it in the name of ratings and advertising dollars (because if there are no ratings there are no advertising dollars and then they all lose their jobs). These reports initially consist of very little substance and even fewer facts. They are generally what we in the job would refer to as “fire porn.” A live TV shot from the ground, or a helicopter, or some remote cam showing a bunch of smoke and fire. The long lines of apparatus parked along the street. The sound of Q-sirens wailing. This draws in viewers and again piques interest among people. After all, most people are enthralled at the site of a huge header and blowing flames. Next comes the erroneous or mis-information. This is usually as the result of two different reasons. Firstly, uneducated people making statements about something they know little to nothing about or, secondly, a rush to try and get “facts” out to the public without the needed vetting of sources and corroboration. One need only think back to 9/11 to remember this. How many reports of more planes being hijacked were there? Reports of terrorists running around Manhattan with guns. Eye-witness accounts of missiles being fired at the towers and the Pentagon. The same thing happens on smaller scales at every major incident. Some are embellishments by lay people and reporters alike, “Firefighters are doing their best to keep this entire block from becoming a conflagration” when those of us with any kind of knowledge and experience can see it’s a room and contents with a window failure that might get the neighbor’s house going if left alone long enough. Some are inadvertent inaccuracies based on pieces of information from many different sources. And still others you just have to laugh at wondering where the talking-head pulled that little gem from? Then, mercifully, comes the wind-down. When the incident is all but over and the live-shots from the scene involve a couple aerial pipes and a whole bunch of steam. Facts are corrected. Some reporters may even admit to mistaken reports earlier. Public interest is now all but gone and the story fades into history. But, in the wake of tragedy, this sequence of events is kicked into hyper-drive. Huge fires draw viewers. Huge fires draw hits to social media pages. Huge fires draw fame to those that were previously unknown. Firefighters dying in the line of duty does that ten-fold. And this is where I am ashamed of so many of our own. In the wake of tragedy there are those that seek to exploit the situation in one form or another. Memorial t-shirts, hats, stickers are all available to order within hours by unscrupulous vendors looking to cash in on our collective grief and traditions of remembering our fallen. Still others look to gain notoriety in some fashion or other. The guy from next door giving his eye witness account. The retired so-and-so on TV called in to provide commentary as an “expert.” And then there is the lowest of the low, in my opinion. There are those that call themselves brothers and sisters who take to their keyboards and the internet and immediately begin the Monday morning quarterbacking. Each and every one of these belly-crawlers would have never been in “that” situation. They would have had that fire out by the time this event could have happened by using this technique or that. They throw out buzzwords and hot topics to prove what salty Jakes they are and that everyone should listen to them. It’s a grab at feeling self-important or respected by their peers. Some do it in the name of “education.” “Hey! I’m just trying to prevent this from happening to someone else!”, is their rallying cry. Playing the part of the selfless champion for today’s fire service our brave brother or sister points out every last flaw they noted on the 15 seconds of film they saw on their local news station. Or pin points the exact thing that caused the whole operation to go South from the one radio transmission they perceive to be the most important. Yes, in the wake of tragedy we should all bow down before these pillars of fire service knowledge and stalwarts of tradition. Or, in the wake of tragedy, we should shut the fuck up. We should come to grips with our own individual mortality and realize that in an hour, tomorrow or in a month that could be you or I. We should offer support and prayers and encouraging words to one another. In the wake of tragedy we should be still and let things develop as they will. Allow investigations and reports to be completed. Let the facts come out. Not speculation. Not supposition. Not your own goddam commentary based on the three fires you’ve been to in the last three years. In the wake of tragedy we should come alongside our brothers and sisters who have had huge, gaping holes torn in their lives and assist them in any way that we can, not add to their grief. In the wake of tragedy we support the loved ones left behind. We become surrogate mothers and fathers, uncles and aunts, friends. We play catch in the yard. We cut the lawn. We pick up groceries. We let them know that they are part of the biggest, most dedicated and most loving family in the world. In the wake of tragedy we continue to do what we have all sworn to do; we serve. In the wake of tragedy we honor, in actions and in words. Romans 14:8 For if we live, we live to the Lord, and if we die, we die to the Lord. So then, whether we live or whether we die, we are the Lord’s. Rest in eternal peace Lieutenant Ed Walsh and Firefighter Michael Kennedy, we’ve got it from here.

Mayday

Chris Sterricker:

Melina does an outstanding job honoring the memory of Captain Jeffery Bowen, Asheville, NC Fire Department. Her perspective and emotion reminds us that there are others out there who hurt with us, who bleed with is.

Originally posted on Our Front Door:

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I remember it like it was yesterday, the sights, the sounds, the smells, the tears. It was all so real, so painfully real. I could never forget.

At first they just called to tell us that 445 Biltmore was on fire, this building, for those of you who don’t know, is directly connected to our hospital, our home, our place of safety. Everyone was out and there were no known injuries, Awesome, everyone is safe! From an ER standpoint we should be in the clear, now the firemen could get to work, put the fire out, and the long clean up could begin. However, in the end, that is not how this day played out.

A couple of hours passed and we got a very different phone call. “We need to call a code triage, there is an unknown number of people coming that way from the fire, get ready.”…

View original 623 more words

Extraordinary

Extraordinary.

Ladies and Gents, Brothers and Sisters, do yourself a favor and go read this very emotional and well written piece by an active ED RN. Although she is writing from that perspective and commenting on her co-workers this could easily be applied to so many of our co-workers in the Fire/EMS Service. Simply replace your mental image of a hospital Emergency Department with the scenes you have responded to and the co-workers you serve with while reading.

OH MY ACHING HEAD

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Concussion. It’s been a huge concern and media buzzword over the last couple years. Much of the discussion and attention has been brought about by several high-profile athletes having taken their own lives after dealing with what they believed were the side-effects of numerous concussions they had suffered during their playing careers, most notably Junior Seau and Dave Duerson. Both former NFL stars shot themselves in the chest so that their brains could be studied after their deaths in the hope of preventing or treating others with chronic traumatic enchephalapothy (CTE). CTE is being categorized as a degenerative disease caused by repeated brain trauma over a period of time, usually years, that results in a list of symptoms that leads many of its victims to live lives that are almost unrecognizable as compared to their lives before CTE. The most common cause of CTE is repeated concussion.

I think I was about 10 years old or so. Fifth or sixth grade, maybe. We were playing floor hockey in P.E. class in the poured-concrete with (probably asbestos) tile over the top gym. I remember having the puck and moving up the left side of the court, heading towards the goal. I think I was tripped by some other sticks, or maybe a leg, and falling head-first to the floor, bouncing my forehead off the concrete and tile. I also remember a class-mate named Randy was running behind me, trying to catch me on the play. Randy was the biggest kid in the school, no matter what grade. Over six-feet tall and over one-hundred pounds already, he wasn’t able to hold-up after I fell. He tripped and fell on top of me, bouncing my head off the floor split-seconds after it had already struck it the first time. I don’t remember getting from the floor of the gym to the principle’s office. I barely remember being told my step-dad was on his way to pick me up and take me home. The ride home, about a mile and a half, was fuzzy at best. Getting home I remember my step-dad had to half-carry me inside to our small den, where he laid me down on the loveseat, covered me with a blanket and told me to take it easy. I have sporadic, disconjugated memories of the next two days. I slept the whole time, waking briefly to hear bits of conversation coming from the other room or to see my mom or step-dad leaning over me saying something. That I remember I didn’t eat or get up to go to the bathroom, although I’m guessing I must have at least done the latter at some point. My parents never took me to the doctor. It was the mid-eighties and not much was known about concussion or traumatic brain injury. Certainly not by parents of the time, unlike today. Concussion was just another way of saying, “he got his bell rung”, and didn’t warrant anything more than a little time to recover, a slap on the butt and a “get back in there” from your coach. Today, of course, we know much more about the causes, symptoms and cumulative effects of concussion. But back then it just wasn’t a big deal. So I slept for two days and when I was either forced or felt well enough to get up (I don’t remember what the circumstances were), I resumed life like nothing had happened. Back to school. Back to basketball and baseball. Back to playing with friends. That was the first of what I’m guessing to be six or more concussions I’ve suffered over the years.

According to the Mayo Clinic concussion is, “a traumatic brain injury that alters the way your brain functions. Effects are usually temporary, but can include problems with headache, concentration, memory, judgment, balance and coordination.” Concussion occurs when the head is struck violently or shaken very hard and the brain slams into the skull, causing injury. Contrary to popular belief losing consciousness is not necessary to suffer a concussion. The brain can sustain a severe enough injury to be concussed without the patient actually losing consciousness. This is the least severe of the three grades of concussion. While there is no universal consensus on the grading of concussions there are two scales that are most commonly used in the United States; the Cantu scale and the Standardized Assessment of Concussion.

The Cantu Scale was developed by Dr. Robert Cantu in 1986 and was adopted by the American College of Sports Medicine. In 1991 the Colorado Medical Society developed its own guidelines after several deaths of High School football players after suffering brain injuries. These guidelines were more restrictive than Dr. Cantu’s and were then adopted by the NCAA for evaluating college athletes. Whether it be the Cantu scale or the CMS scale they share four general evaluations. 1) presence or absence of loss of consciousness, 2) duration of loss of consciousness, 3) duration of post traumatic memory loss, and 4) persistence of symptoms including headache, dizziness and lack of concentration. When the results of these evaluations are determined the concussion can then be graded.

Grade I:  concussions are not associated with loss of consciousness, and post-traumatic amnesia is either absent or      less than 30 minutes in duration. Athletes may return to play if no symptoms are present for one week.

Grade II:  concussions in which the patient loses consciousness for less than five minutes or exhibits posttraumatic amnesia between 30 minutes and 24 hours in duration. They also may return to play after one week of being asymptomatic.

Grade III:  concussions involve post-traumatic amnesia for more than 24 hours or unconsciousness for more than five minutes. Players who sustain this grade of brain injury should be sidelined for at least one month, after which they can return to play if they are asymptomatic for one week.

Post-concussive Syndrome can occur in the days, weeks, months and even years after a patient suffers a concussion. PCS is the presence and on-going problematic occurrences of the signs and symptoms of concussion after what should have been the “normal” healing time. Symptoms include memory and concentration problems, mood swings, personality changes, headache, fatigue, dizziness, insomnia and excessive drowsiness. While no one knows for certain it is thought that the symptoms and problems associated with PCS contributed to the suicides of both Seau and Duerson. Dealing with these symptoms on a day-to-day basis became too much for them to bare and the only way they saw to be at peace was taking their own lives. But they were football players with lengthy careers in one of the most violent sports played. What could they possibly have in common with us?

I think we would all agree that the profession of firefighting and the delivery of EMS care has countless opportunities for us to suffer head injuries. From collapses at structure fires, to falls off the rig or a ladder, to encounters with violent patients there is ample opportunity for us to suffer a concussion. In the span of my career I can think of at least three times I personally believe I have suffered a concussion as a direct result of the job. I’m sure there are many of you who firefighter c-collarcould think of one or more times when you “had your bell rung” hard enough that you saw stars, became unsteady or even lost consciousness. These occurrences are severe enough to cause a concussion and warrant an evaluation. If you are suffering from the continued symptoms of what you believe to be a concussion suffered in the past you can still be evaluated presently despite the length of time since the injury. The exam will be subjective and based upon the history of the event and the symptoms you suffered or are continuing to suffer from. According to the United States Fire Administration report Fire-Related Firefighter Injuries Reported to NIFRS released in 2011, 15% of the 81,070 injuries suffered by firefighters between 2006 and 2008 (the time-period of the study) were head injuries. That’s 12,160.5 head injuries suffered. Divided by the three years of the study equals an average of 4,053.5 head injuries per year. That’s a lot in my book. Are all of them concussions or possible concussions? Probably not. But I’d be willing to bet that a large enough number of them warrant an evaluation for concussion and the possibility of on-going problems after.

As with Junior Seau and Dave Duerson repeated concussion, or a single severe enough event of concussion, can lead to a life time of disabilities and mental health issues. Depression is just one such mental health issue associated with concussion injuries and its associated syndromes. As we all know the issue of firefighter depression and firefighter suicide has been a significant topic of late and one which needs to be talked about openly and honestly. The days of “just suck it up and deal with it” are long over. The days of shrugging off the splitting headaches and continued dizziness because “you’re tougher than that” need to be left in the past too. We have enough on this job that can kill or lead to permanent disability, don’t let this be added to your list too.

Until next time,

Be safe.

Chris

New Partnerships and Free Training

A new and exciting opportunity has presented itself and I’ve jumped at the chance. I’ve recently been given the opportunity to work with Chris Huston of EngineCo.22, and John Shafer of Green Maltese in their joint venture Fire Training Toolbox. FTT began as their brain-child with the vision of a place where firefighters could go for free, top-notch training  that was easily accessible and available to all regardless of pay scale, department size or training budget. It is also not meant to be a handful of elitist instructors who lecture down to the minions of the fire service, impressing them with their knowledge and puffing out their chests to each other. At the risk of sounding a little Utopian, FTT is supposed to be a group of highly motivated and eager individuals who enjoy learning and sharing their knowledge with others in order to make the fire service better. It’s basically open to anyone who wants to contribute, both on the learning and teaching end. That’s how I got involved. I asked.

So I submitted my first training article to FTT a few days ago. Hopefully it won’t be the last. I decided to do an article on a subject that I really don’t remember ever seeing done before, not to toot my own horn or anything. I wrote about opening an overhead door for defensive hoseline operations. “Huh?”, you might be asking. Well, think about it for a moment. There are two main reasons we open overhead doors, but both have distinctly different objectives. The first reason is to force entry. Meaning, the garage door is in the way and we need to get into the structure behind it. Obviously we have to force the door in order to get into the building. The second reason to force the door is to get at the fire behind the door. In this case we are going to assume the fire has us beat and this is a defensive operation. We aren’t going in but we still need to open those big overhead doors to be able to hit the fire. Will the same method work for both objectives? Depends on which method you choose. Guess you’ll just have to read the article. The link here will take you to the articles menu on FTT. Look for it there and check out the other articles and training modules available.

I’ve Been BURNED.

* Image from DETROITFIREFILM.ORG, all rights reserved.

Last night I had the opportunity and privilege to see the movie that most of us in the fire service have been talking about for a while now; “BURN; One Year on the Front Lines of the Battle to Save Detroit.” I realize I am behind many of you out there in having seen the film but this was the first offering in my area and myself and about half my shift, as well as a couple guys from the other two shifts we allowed to join us, went to take it in. And all I can say is, “Wow.” I’m glad I did.

I’m glad I didn’t just sit back and say, yeah I “know” what’s going on in Detroit. I “know” what the Brothers are up against up there. I “know” they fight a lot of fire and I “know” they are doing it in less than ideal conditions. Because if I were to have done that it would have been like saying I “know” what war is like because I heard my Grandfather talk about it a couple times. I never would have seen it with my own eyes, listened to it with my own ears and looked at some of these men in their eyes as they told their stories. Now, it’s true, this was done on a movie screen but it was that powerful nonetheless. Especially if you’re a firefighter and can relate to at least some of what is going on in that once, and perhaps again, proud city. You can’t help but be moved by the men who go to work every day knowing they are going to fight multiple fires with less than ideal apparatus and equipment, and in some cases backing, because it’s their job and they love it. Not only that but because they have a duty to the people that are still left in Detroit. And therein lies a forgotten story in the conflagration of Detroit; there are still people who call the city their home and who have nothing else in their lives but what is in that house, as run-down or decrepit as it may seem to you and me. It’s not all about Devil’s Night and vacant structure fires. The DFD is still in the business of saving lives and protecting property when it can and has the ability to do so.

Many of us have seen the illustration below that explains the different meanings associated with the symbol of our profession. Gallantry; Perseverance; Loyalty; Dexterity; Explicitness; Observation; Tact and Sympathy. At this point and time in our collective history I cannot think of another organization as whole that exemplifies these credos better than Detroit Fire Department simply by showing up to work every day in the conditions they must and continuing to do the job they have sworn to do. A very powerful scene in the movie for me personally, and I don’t want to give too much away for those that have not seen the film yet, happened at the funeral of a young fire victim. This case was well publicized around the nation. There were equipment failures. The first-due Truck Company’s aerial didn’t work. She was trapped in the upper stories. The first arriving crews tried to get to her via interior stairs and ground ladder but couldn’t. She succumbed. And there, at her wake and funeral, were the men and women of the Detroit Fire Department. Standing with their community saying, “This was a tragedy. This shouldn’t have happened. We are here with you and for you.”  My first thought, selfishly, was, “I don’t know if I could have done that. What if they would have turned on us? Hated us?” But in Detroit things are different. The community, I believe, for the most part understands it’s not the rank-and-file firefighters who are not performing their jobs. It is not the guys with gear held together by duct tape and the last strands of stitching. Due in large part to individual efforts of neighborhood fire companies and the local press the community has turned its eyes downtown to the elected officials and has begun to call them to task for the state not only of the fire department but of the city as a whole. Again, this rapport with the community is not due to a Public Education Unit which is funded with tens of thousands of dollars in the yearly budget, a dedicated staff and its own vehicle to drive around to block parties and senior citizen events all year. It’s not even due to a Fire Commissioner who sits and eats a hamburger with at a local church gathering while asking, “What do you-all really need from the Fire Department?” It’s from the men and women who actually respond to the calls also taking the time to educate the people about the situation.

And really educating people is what this film is all about. While this film has obviously become a hit with us, firefighters, it really is not meant for us. In the Q&A session after the screening last night Producer/Director Brenna Sanchez said (and I’m paraphrasing a little bit here because I didn’t have time to write the entire quote down); “This film was made so that the next time people go to vote for budget cuts for you’re department they’ll stop and remember Detroit, and think, “I don’t want my city to turn into that.” After all you guys are all 1 or 5 or 10 budget cuts away from being in the same situation just on a smaller scale.” And she’s right. East Fork Little River Fire Protection District (still doesn’t exist, I Google it every time I use it) might not fight 30 fires a day, but if they don’t have the equipment or manpower they need for the 1 fire in the year they do get, isn’t it just as bad? Especially if there is a life on the line? But this film can only educate the intended audience if it reaches them. And here is where the project is still running into trouble. “Whaddyamean?” I just heard you ask. The movie is being shown all around the country to rave reviews! That’s true, and the monetary goals for actually completing the movie-making portion of the production were met. But the project is still an independent release and has no studio or marketing back. Very few chain movie theaters have agreed to carry the film in their normal line-ups (although Brenna and Tom shared some exciting news for the Chicago area last night, but not knowing if I have the ok to release that info, too bad for you :) So the long and the short of it is that the project still needs help to ensure that it will be released commercially nationwide and reach its intended target audience, civilians. If you can find it in yourself to help out please go to BURN’s official website and make a donation, buy some swag, host a screening or do whatever you can. It’s not just about Detroit, it could wind up being about any of us.

Left to Right: Producer/Director Brenna Sanchez, FEO Dave Farnell (ret.), Myself, FF Ted “Tito” Copley

Front: FF Brendan “Doogie” Milewski (ret.)

Until next time,

Be safe!

Chris